Articles | Volume 17, issue 1
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Estimating degree-day factors of snow based on energy flux components
Department of Civil Engineering, Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, Koblenz, Germany
TUM School of Engineering and Design, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Department of Civil Engineering, Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, Koblenz, Germany
Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, Tsuruoka, Japan
Department of Civil Engineering, Koblenz University of Applied Sciences, Koblenz, Germany
No articles found.
Lu Tian, Markus Disse, and Jingshui Huang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
Anthropogenic global warming accelerates the drought evolution in the water cycle, increasing the unpredictability of drought. The evolution of drought is stealthy and challenging to track. This study proposes a new framework to capture the high-precision spatiotemporal progression of drought events in their evolutionary processes and characterize their feature further. It is crucial for addressing the systemic risks within the hydrological cycle associated with drought mitigation.
Punit K. Bhola, Jorge Leandro, and Markus Disse
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2647–2663,Short summary
In operational flood risk management, a single best model is used to assess the impact of flooding, which might misrepresent uncertainties in the modelling process. We have used quantified uncertainties in flood forecasting to generate flood hazard maps that were combined based on different exceedance probability scenarios with the purpose to differentiate impacts of flooding and to account for uncertainties in flood hazard maps that can be used by decision makers.
Yang Yu, Markus Disse, Philipp Huttner, Xi Chen, Andreas Brieden, Marie Hinnenthal, Haiyan Zhang, Jiaqiang Lei, Fanjiang Zeng, Lingxiao Sun, Yuting Gao, and Ruide Yu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
The afforestation actions in China have attracted widely attention in recent years. This paper presents a hydro-ecological modeling approach to assess environmental changes and ecosystem services in the largest inland river basin in China. Our result indicates China's tree-planting in the Tarim River Basin is strictly strained by water stress and 25.9 % of the existing area of natural vegetation will be degraded by 2050. It is a warning for decision-makers and stakeholders.
Punit Kumar Bhola, Jorge Leandro, and Markus Disse
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1445–1457,Short summary
This study investigates the use of measured water levels to reduce uncertainty bounds of two-dimensional hydrodynamic model output. Uncertainty assessment is generally not reported in practice due to the lack of best practices and too wide uncertainty bounds. Hence, a novel method to reduce the bounds by constraining the model parameter, mainly roughness, is presented. The operational practitioners as well as researchers benefit from the study in the field of flood risk management.
Dagnenet Fenta Mekonnen, Zheng Duan, Tom Rientjes, and Markus Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 6187–6207,Short summary
Understanding responses by changes in land use and land cover (LULC) and climate over the past decades on streamflow in the upper Blue Nile River basin is important for water management and water resource planning. Streamflow in the UBNRB has shown an increasing trend over the last 40 years, while rainfall has shown no trend change. LULC change detection findings indicate increases in cultivated land and decreases in forest coverage prior to 1995.
Beatrice Dittes, Maria Kaiser, Olga Špačková, Wolfgang Rieger, Markus Disse, and Daniel Straub
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 1327–1347,Short summary
We study flood protection options in a pre-alpine catchment in southern Germany. Protection systems are evaluated probabilistically, taking into account climatic and other uncertainties as well as the possibility of future adjustments. Despite large uncertainty in damage, cost, and climate, we arrive at a rough recommendation. Hence, one can make good decisions under large uncertainty. The results also show it is preferable to plan risk-based rather than protecting from a specific design flood.
Dagnenet Fenta Mekonnen and Markus Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 2391–2408,Short summary
In this study we used multimodel GCMs (because of recognized intervariable biases in host GCMs) and two widely used statistical downscaling techniques (LARS-WG and SDSM) to see comparative performances in the Upper Blue Nile River basin, where there is high climate variability. The result from the two downscaling models suggested that both SDSM and LARS-WG approximate the observed climate data reasonably well and project an increasing trend for precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature.
Muhammad Fraz Ismail and Wolfgang Bogacki
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1391–1409,
Erwin Isaac Polanco, Amr Fleifle, Ralf Ludwig, and Markus Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4907–4926,Short summary
In this research, SWAT was used to model the upper Blue Nile Basin where comparisons between ground and CFSR data were done. Furthermore, this paper introduced the SWAT error index (SEI), an additional tool to measure the level of error of hydrological models. This work proposed an approach or methodology that can effectively be followed to create better and more efficient hydrological models.
Wolfgang Bogacki and M. Fraz Ismail
Proc. IAHS, 374, 137–142,
Proc. IAHS, 373, 25–29,Short summary
The Tarim Basin in Xinjiang province in northwest China is characterized by a hyper arid climate. Climate change and a strong increase in agricultural land use are major challenges for sustainable water management. The largest competition for water resources exists between irrigated fields and natural riparian vegetation. The Sino-German project SuMaRiO provided a decision support system based on ecosystem services and will implement sustainable water management measures in the next 5-year plan.
C. Rumbaur, N. Thevs, M. Disse, M. Ahlheim, A. Brieden, B. Cyffka, D. Duethmann, T. Feike, O. Frör, P. Gärtner, Ü. Halik, J. Hill, M. Hinnenthal, P. Keilholz, B. Kleinschmit, V. Krysanova, M. Kuba, S. Mader, C. Menz, H. Othmanli, S. Pelz, M. Schroeder, T. F. Siew, V. Stender, K. Stahr, F. M. Thomas, M. Welp, M. Wortmann, X. Zhao, X. Chen, T. Jiang, J. Luo, H. Yimit, R. Yu, X. Zhang, and C. Zhao
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 83–107,
P. Fiener, K. Auerswald, F. Winter, and M. Disse
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 4121–4132,
Related subject area
Discipline: Snow | Subject: Energy Balance Obs/ModellingUnderstanding wind-driven melt of patchy snow coverAn 11-year record of wintertime snow-surface energy balance and sublimation at 4863 m a.s.l. on the Chhota Shigri Glacier moraine (western Himalaya, India)Sensitivity of modeled snow grain size retrievals to solar geometry, snow particle asphericity, and snowpack impuritiesMetamorphism of snow on Arctic sea ice during the melt season: impact on spectral albedo and radiative fluxes through snowGABLS4 intercomparison of snow models at Dome C in AntarcticaDivergence of apparent and intrinsic snow albedo over a season at a sub-alpine site with implications for remote sensingModelling surface temperature and radiation budget of snow-covered complex terrainSnow model comparison to simulate snow depth evolution and sublimation at point scale in the semi-arid Andes of ChileBrief communication: Evaluation of multiple density-dependent empirical snow conductivity relationships in East AntarcticaEffect of small-scale snow surface roughness on snow albedo and reflectanceImpact of forcing on sublimation simulations for a high mountain catchment in the semiarid AndesIntercomparison and improvement of two-stream shortwave radiative transfer schemes in Earth system models for a unified treatment of cryospheric surfacesA key factor initiating surface ablation of Arctic sea ice: earlier and increasing liquid precipitationForcing the SURFEX/Crocus snow model with combined hourly meteorological forecasts and gridded observations in southern NorwayObservations and simulations of the seasonal evolution of snowpack cold content and its relation to snowmelt and the snowpack energy budget
Luuk D. van der Valk, Adriaan J. Teuling, Luc Girod, Norbert Pirk, Robin Stoffer, and Chiel C. van Heerwaarden
The Cryosphere, 16, 4319–4341,Short summary
Most large-scale hydrological and climate models struggle to capture the spatially highly variable wind-driven melt of patchy snow cover. In the field, we find that 60 %–80 % of the total melt is wind driven at the upwind edge of a snow patch, while it does not contribute at the downwind edge. Our idealized simulations show that the variation is due to a patch-size-independent air-temperature reduction over snow patches and also allow us to study the role of wind-driven snowmelt on larger scales.
Arindan Mandal, Thupstan Angchuk, Mohd Farooq Azam, Alagappan Ramanathan, Patrick Wagnon, Mohd Soheb, and Chetan Singh
The Cryosphere, 16, 3775–3799,Short summary
Snow sublimation is an important component of glacier surface mass balance; however, it is seldom studied in detail in the Himalayan region owing to data scarcity. We present an 11-year record of wintertime snow-surface energy balance and sublimation characteristics at the Chhota Shigri Glacier moraine site at 4863 m a.s.l. The estimated winter sublimation is 16 %–42 % of the winter snowfall at the study site, which signifies how sublimation is important in the Himalayan region.
Zachary Fair, Mark Flanner, Adam Schneider, and S. McKenzie Skiles
The Cryosphere, 16, 3801–3814,Short summary
Snow grain size is important to determine the age and structure of snow, but it is difficult to measure. Snow grain size can be found from airborne and spaceborne observations by measuring near-infrared energy reflected from snow. In this study, we use the SNICAR radiative transfer model and a Monte Carlo model to examine how snow grain size measurements change with snow structure and solar zenith angle. We show that improved understanding of these variables improves snow grain size precision.
Gauthier Vérin, Florent Domine, Marcel Babin, Ghislain Picard, and Laurent Arnaud
The Cryosphere, 16, 3431–3449,Short summary
Snow physical properties on Arctic sea ice are monitored during the melt season. As snow grains grow, and the snowpack thickness is reduced, the surface albedo decreases. The extra absorbed energy accelerates melting. Radiative transfer modeling shows that more radiation is then transmitted to the snow–sea-ice interface. A sharp increase in transmitted radiation takes place when the snowpack thins significantly, and this coincides with the initiation of the phytoplankton bloom in the seawater.
Patrick Le Moigne, Eric Bazile, Anning Cheng, Emanuel Dutra, John M. Edwards, William Maurel, Irina Sandu, Olivier Traullé, Etienne Vignon, Ayrton Zadra, and Weizhong Zheng
The Cryosphere, 16, 2183–2202,Short summary
This paper describes an intercomparison of snow models, of varying complexity, used for numerical weather prediction or academic research. The results show that the simplest models are, under certain conditions, able to reproduce the surface temperature just as well as the most complex models. Moreover, the diversity of surface parameters of the models has a strong impact on the temporal variability of the components of the simulated surface energy balance.
Edward H. Bair, Jeff Dozier, Charles Stern, Adam LeWinter, Karl Rittger, Alexandria Savagian, Timbo Stillinger, and Robert E. Davis
The Cryosphere, 16, 1765–1778,Short summary
Understanding how snow and ice reflect solar radiation (albedo) is important for global climate. Using high-resolution topography, darkening from surface roughness (apparent albedo) is separated from darkening by the composition of the snow (intrinsic albedo). Intrinsic albedo is usually greater than apparent albedo, especially during melt. Such high-resolution topography is often not available; thus the use of a shade component when modeling mixtures is advised.
Alvaro Robledano, Ghislain Picard, Laurent Arnaud, Fanny Larue, and Inès Ollivier
The Cryosphere, 16, 559–579,Short summary
Topography controls the surface temperature of snow-covered, mountainous areas. We developed a modelling chain that uses ray-tracing methods to quantify the impact of a few topographic effects on snow surface temperature at high spatial resolution. Its large spatial and temporal variations are correctly simulated over a 50 km2 area in the French Alps, and our results show that excluding a single topographic effect results in cooling (or warming) effects on the order of 1 °C.
Annelies Voordendag, Marion Réveillet, Shelley MacDonell, and Stef Lhermitte
The Cryosphere, 15, 4241–4259,Short summary
The sensitivity of two snow models (SNOWPACK and SnowModel) to various parameterizations and atmospheric forcing biases is assessed in the semi-arid Andes of Chile in winter 2017. Models show that sublimation is a main driver of ablation and that its relative contribution to total ablation is highly sensitive to the selected albedo parameterization and snow roughness length. The forcing and parameterizations are more important than the model choice, despite differences in physical complexity.
Minghu Ding, Tong Zhang, Diyi Yang, Ian Allison, Tingfeng Dou, and Cunde Xiao
The Cryosphere, 15, 4201–4206,Short summary
Measurement of snow heat conductivity is essential to establish the energy balance between the atmosphere and firn, but it is still not clear in Antarctica. Here, we used data from three automatic weather stations located in different types of climate and evaluated nine schemes that were used to calculate the effective heat diffusivity of snow. The best solution was proposed. However, no conductivity–density relationship was optimal at all sites, and the performance of each varied with depth.
Terhikki Manninen, Kati Anttila, Emmihenna Jääskeläinen, Aku Riihelä, Jouni Peltoniemi, Petri Räisänen, Panu Lahtinen, Niilo Siljamo, Laura Thölix, Outi Meinander, Anna Kontu, Hanne Suokanerva, Roberta Pirazzini, Juha Suomalainen, Teemu Hakala, Sanna Kaasalainen, Harri Kaartinen, Antero Kukko, Olivier Hautecoeur, and Jean-Louis Roujean
The Cryosphere, 15, 793–820,Short summary
The primary goal of this paper is to present a model of snow surface albedo (brightness) accounting for small-scale surface roughness effects. It can be combined with any volume scattering model. The results indicate that surface roughness may decrease the albedo by about 1–3 % in midwinter and even more than 10 % during the late melting season. The effect is largest for low solar zenith angle values and lower bulk snow albedo values.
Marion Réveillet, Shelley MacDonell, Simon Gascoin, Christophe Kinnard, Stef Lhermitte, and Nicole Schaffer
The Cryosphere, 14, 147–163,
Cheng Dang, Charles S. Zender, and Mark G. Flanner
The Cryosphere, 13, 2325–2343,
Tingfeng Dou, Cunde Xiao, Jiping Liu, Wei Han, Zhiheng Du, Andrew R. Mahoney, Joshua Jones, and Hajo Eicken
The Cryosphere, 13, 1233–1246,Short summary
The variability and potential trends of rain-on-snow events over Arctic sea ice and their role in sea-ice losses are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that rain-on-snow events are a critical factor in initiating the onset of surface melt over Arctic sea ice, and onset of spring rainfall over sea ice has shifted to earlier dates since the 1970s, which may have profound impacts on ice melt through feedbacks involving earlier onset of surface melt.
Hanneke Luijting, Dagrun Vikhamar-Schuler, Trygve Aspelien, Åsmund Bakketun, and Mariken Homleid
The Cryosphere, 12, 2123–2145,Short summary
Knowledge of the snow reservoir is important for energy production and water resource management. In this study, a detailed snow model is run over southern Norway with two different sets of forcing data. The results show that forcing data consisting of post-processed data from a numerical weather model (observations assimilated into the raw weather predictions) are most promising for snow simulations when larger regions are evaluated.
Keith S. Jennings, Timothy G. F. Kittel, and Noah P. Molotch
The Cryosphere, 12, 1595–1614,Short summary
We show through observations and simulations that cold content, a key part of the snowpack energy budget, develops primarily through new snowfall. We also note that cold content damps snowmelt rate and timing at sub-seasonal timescales, while seasonal melt onset is controlled by the timing of peak cold content and total spring precipitation. This work has implications for how cold content is represented in snow models and improves our understanding of its effect on snowmelt processes.
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Fresh water from mountainous catchments in the form of snowmelt and ice melt is of critical importance especially in the summer season for people living in these regions. In general, limited data availability is the core concern while modelling the snow and ice melt components from these mountainous catchments. This research will be helpful in selecting realistic parameter values (i.e. degree-day factor) while calibrating the temperature-index models for data-scarce regions.
Fresh water from mountainous catchments in the form of snowmelt and ice melt is of critical...