Articles | Volume 15, issue 2
The Cryosphere, 15, 715–742, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-715-2021
The Cryosphere, 15, 715–742, 2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-15-715-2021
Research article
15 Feb 2021
Research article | 15 Feb 2021

Sensitivity of ice sheet surface velocity and elevation to variations in basal friction and topography in the full Stokes and shallow-shelf approximation frameworks using adjoint equations

Gong Cheng et al.

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Short summary
We present an inverse modeling approach to improve the understanding of spatiotemporally variable processes at the inaccessible base of an ice sheet by determining the sensitivity of direct surface observations to perturbations of basal conditions. Time dependency is proved to be important in these types of problems. The effect of perturbations is analyzed based on analytical and numerical solutions.