Articles | Volume 2, issue 2
The Cryosphere, 2, 95–108, 2008
The Cryosphere, 2, 95–108, 2008

  26 Aug 2008

26 Aug 2008

Benchmark experiments for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models (ISMIP–HOM)

F. Pattyn1, L. Perichon1, A. Aschwanden2, B. Breuer3, B. de Smedt4, O. Gagliardini5, G. H. Gudmundsson6, R. C. A. Hindmarsh6, A. Hubbard7, J. V. Johnson8, T. Kleiner3, Y. Konovalov9, C. Martin6, A. J. Payne10, D. Pollard11, S. Price10, M. Rückamp3, F. Saito12, O. Souček13, S. Sugiyama14, and T. Zwinger15 F. Pattyn et al.
  • 1Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP160/03, Av. F. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
  • 2Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 3Institute for Geophysics, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 24, 48149 Muenster, Germany
  • 4Vakgroep Geografie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
  • 5Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE), CNRS, UJF-Grenoble I, BP 96, 38402 Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France
  • 6Physical Science Division, British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK
  • 7Centre for Glaciology, Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Ceredigion, SY23 3DP, UK
  • 8Department of Computer Science, Social Science Building Room 417, Univ. of Montana, Missoula MT, 59812-5256, USA
  • 9Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia
  • 10Bristol Glaciology Centre, School of Geographical Sciences, University Road, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1SS, UK
  • 11Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, 2217 Earth-Engineering Sciences Bldg., Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • 12Frontier Res. Center for Global Change, 3173-25 Showamachi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan
  • 13Department of Geophysics, Charles University Prague, V. Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Praha 8, Czech Republic
  • 14Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Nishi-8, Kita-19, Sapporo 060-0819, Japan
  • 15CSC-Scientific Computing Ltd., Keilaranta 14, P.O. Box 405, 02101 Espoo, Finland

Abstract. We present the results of the first ice sheet model intercomparison project for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models. These models are compared and verified in a series of six experiments of which one has an analytical solution obtained from a perturbation analysis. The experiments are applied to both 2-D and 3-D geometries; five experiments are steady-state diagnostic, and one has a time-dependent prognostic solution. All participating models give results that are in close agreement. A clear distinction can be made between higher-order models and those that solve the full system of equations. The full-Stokes models show a much smaller spread, hence are in better agreement with one another and with the analytical solution.