Articles | Volume 15, issue 9
Research article 24 Sep 2021
Research article | 24 Sep 2021
Development of a diffuse reflectance probe for in situ measurement of inherent optical properties in sea ice
Christophe Perron et al.
No articles found.
Thomas Krumpen, Luisa von Albedyll, Helge F. Goessling, Stefan Hendricks, Bennet Juhls, Gunnar Spreen, Sascha Willmes, H. Jakob Belter, Klaus Dethloff, Christian Haas, Lars Kaleschke, Christian Katlein, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, Robert Ricker, Philip Rostosky, Janna Rückert, Suman Singha, and Julia Sokolova
The Cryosphere, 15, 3897–3920,Short summary
We use satellite data records collected along the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) drift to categorize ice conditions that shaped and characterized the floe and surroundings during the expedition. A comparison with previous years is made whenever possible. The aim of this analysis is to provide a basis and reference for subsequent research in the six main research areas of atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, remote sensing and ecology.
Philippe Massicotte, Rainer M. W. Amon, David Antoine, Philippe Archambault, Sergio Balzano, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Dominique Boeuf, Annick Bricaud, Flavienne Bruyant, Gwenaëlle Chaillou, Malik Chami, Bruno Charrière, Jing Chen, Hervé Claustre, Pierre Coupel, Nicole Delsaut, David Doxaran, Jens Ehn, Cédric Fichot, Marie-Hélène Forget, Pingqing Fu, Jonathan Gagnon, Nicole Garcia, Beat Gasser, Jean-François Ghiglione, Gaby Gorsky, Michel Gosselin, Priscillia Gourvil, Yves Gratton, Pascal Guillot, Hermann J. Heipieper, Serge Heussner, Stanford B. Hooker, Yannick Huot, Christian Jeanthon, Wade Jeffrey, Fabien Joux, Kimitaka Kawamura, Bruno Lansard, Edouard Leymarie, Heike Link, Connie Lovejoy, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Johannie Martin, Jacobo Martín, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Vanessa McKague, Alexandre Mignot, William L. Miller, Juan-Carlos Miquel, Alfonso Mucci, Kaori Ono, Eva Ortega-Retuerta, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Tim Papakyriakou, Marc Picheral, Louis Prieur, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Rick A. Reynolds, André Rochon, Jean-François Rontani, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Yuan Shen, Guisheng Song, Dariusz Stramski, Eri Tachibana, Alexandre Thirouard, Imma Tolosa, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Mickael Vaïtilingom, Daniel Vaulot, Frédéric Vaultier, John K. Volkman, Huixiang Xie, Guangming Zheng, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1561–1592,Short summary
The MALINA oceanographic expedition was conducted in the Mackenzie River and the Beaufort Sea systems. The sampling was performed across seven shelf–basin transects to capture the meridional gradient between the estuary and the open ocean. The main goal of this research program was to better understand how processes such as primary production are influencing the fate of organic matter originating from the surrounding terrestrial landscape during its transition toward the Arctic Ocean.
Christian Katlein, Lovro Valcic, Simon Lambert-Girard, and Mario Hoppmann
The Cryosphere, 15, 183–198,Short summary
To improve autonomous investigations of sea ice optical properties, we designed a chain of multispectral light sensors, providing autonomous in-ice light measurements. Here we describe the system and the data acquired from a first prototype deployment. We show that sideward-looking planar irradiance sensors basically measure scalar irradiance and demonstrate the use of this sensor chain to derive light transmittance and inherent optical properties of sea ice.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Morten Iversen, Christian Katlein, Thomas Krumpen, Marcel Nicolaus, Giulia Castellani, Ilka Peeken, and Hauke Flores
The Cryosphere, 14, 1795–1808,Short summary
Based on an observed omnipresence of gypsum crystals, we concluded that their release from melting sea ice is a general feature in the Arctic Ocean. Individual gypsum crystals sank at more than 7000 m d−1, suggesting that they are an important ballast mineral. Previous observations found gypsum inside phytoplankton aggregates at 2000 m depth, supporting gypsum as an important driver for pelagic-benthic coupling in the ice-covered Arctic Ocean.
Anna J. Crawford, Derek Mueller, Gregory Crocker, Laurent Mingo, Luc Desjardins, Dany Dumont, and Marcel Babin
The Cryosphere, 14, 1067–1081,Short summary
Large tabular icebergs (
ice islands) are symbols of climate change as well as marine hazards. We measured thickness along radar transects over two visits to a 14 km2 Arctic ice island and left automated equipment to monitor surface ablation and thickness over 1 year. We assess variation in thinning rates and calibrate an ice–ocean melt model with field data. Our work contributes to understanding ice island deterioration via logistically complex fieldwork in a remote environment.
Philippe Massicotte, Rémi Amiraux, Marie-Pier Amyot, Philippe Archambault, Mathieu Ardyna, Laurent Arnaud, Lise Artigue, Cyril Aubry, Pierre Ayotte, Guislain Bécu, Simon Bélanger, Ronald Benner, Henry C. Bittig, Annick Bricaud, Éric Brossier, Flavienne Bruyant, Laurent Chauvaud, Debra Christiansen-Stowe, Hervé Claustre, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Pierre Coupel, Christine Cox, Aurelie Delaforge, Thibaud Dezutter, Céline Dimier, Florent Domine, Francis Dufour, Christiane Dufresne, Dany Dumont, Jens Ehn, Brent Else, Joannie Ferland, Marie-Hélène Forget, Louis Fortier, Martí Galí, Virginie Galindo, Morgane Gallinari, Nicole Garcia, Catherine Gérikas Ribeiro, Margaux Gourdal, Priscilla Gourvil, Clemence Goyens, Pierre-Luc Grondin, Pascal Guillot, Caroline Guilmette, Marie-Noëlle Houssais, Fabien Joux, Léo Lacour, Thomas Lacour, Augustin Lafond, José Lagunas, Catherine Lalande, Julien Laliberté, Simon Lambert-Girard, Jade Larivière, Johann Lavaud, Anita LeBaron, Karine Leblanc, Florence Le Gall, Justine Legras, Mélanie Lemire, Maurice Levasseur, Edouard Leymarie, Aude Leynaert, Adriana Lopes dos Santos, Antonio Lourenço, David Mah, Claudie Marec, Dominique Marie, Nicolas Martin, Constance Marty, Sabine Marty, Guillaume Massé, Atsushi Matsuoka, Lisa Matthes, Brivaela Moriceau, Pierre-Emmanuel Muller, Christopher-John Mundy, Griet Neukermans, Laurent Oziel, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Jean-Jacques Pangrazi, Ghislain Picard, Marc Picheral, France Pinczon du Sel, Nicole Pogorzelec, Ian Probert, Bernard Quéguiner, Patrick Raimbault, Joséphine Ras, Eric Rehm, Erin Reimer, Jean-François Rontani, Søren Rysgaard, Blanche Saint-Béat, Makoto Sampei, Julie Sansoulet, Catherine Schmechtig, Sabine Schmidt, Richard Sempéré, Caroline Sévigny, Yuan Shen, Margot Tragin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Daniel Vaulot, Gauthier Verin, Frédéric Vivier, Anda Vladoiu, Jeremy Whitehead, and Marcel Babin
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 151–176,Short summary
The Green Edge initiative was developed to understand the processes controlling the primary productivity and the fate of organic matter produced during the Arctic spring bloom (PSB). In this article, we present an overview of an extensive and comprehensive dataset acquired during two expeditions conducted in 2015 and 2016 on landfast ice southeast of Qikiqtarjuaq Island in Baffin Bay.
Gauthier Verin, Florent Dominé, Marcel Babin, Ghislain Picard, and Laurent Arnaud
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Publication in TC not foreseenShort summary
The results of two sampling campaigns conducted on landfast sea ice in Baffin Bay show that the melt season can be divided into four main phases during which surface albedo and snow properties show distinct signatures. A radiative transfer model was used to successfully reconstruct the albedo from snow properties. This modeling work highlights that only little changes on the very surface of the snowpack are able to dramatically change the albedo, a key element for the energy budget of sea ice.
Jens K. Ehn, Rick A. Reynolds, Dariusz Stramski, David Doxaran, Bruno Lansard, and Marcel Babin
Biogeosciences, 16, 1583–1605,Short summary
Beam attenuation at 660 nm and suspended particle matter (SPM) relationships were determined during the MALINA cruise in August 2009 to the Canadian Beaufort Sea in order to expand our knowledge of particle distributions in Arctic shelf seas. The relationship was then used to determine SPM distributions for four other expeditions to the region. SPM patterns on the shelf were explained by an interplay between wind forcing, river discharge, and melting sea ice that controls the circulation.
Marie Barbieux, Julia Uitz, Bernard Gentili, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Alexandre Mignot, Antoine Poteau, Catherine Schmechtig, Vincent Taillandier, Edouard Leymarie, Christophe Penkerc'h, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Hervé Claustre, and Annick Bricaud
Biogeosciences, 16, 1321–1342,Short summary
As commonly observed in oligotrophic stratified waters, a subsurface (or deep) chlorophyll maximum (SCM) frequently characterizes the vertical distribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll in the Mediterranean Sea. SCMs often result from photoacclimation of the phytoplankton organisms. However they can also result from an actual increase in phytoplankton carbon biomass. Our results also suggest that a variety of intermediate types of SCMs are encountered between these two endmember situations.
Martí Galí, Maurice Levasseur, Emmanuel Devred, Rafel Simó, and Marcel Babin
Biogeosciences, 15, 3497–3519,Short summary
We developed a new algorithm to estimate the sea-surface concentration of dimethylsulfide (DMS) using satellite data. DMS is a gas produced by marine plankton that, once emitted to the atmosphere, plays a key climatic role by seeding cloud formation. We used the algorithm to produce global DMS maps and also regional DMS time series. The latter suggest that DMS can vary largely from one year to another, which should be taken into account in atmospheric studies.
Vincent Taillandier, Thibaut Wagener, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Nicolas Mayot, Hervé Legoff, Joséphine Ras, Laurent Coppola, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Catherine Schmechtig, Emilie Diamond, Henry Bittig, Dominique Lefevre, Edouard Leymarie, Antoine Poteau, and Louis Prieur
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 627–641,Short summary
We report on data from an oceanographic cruise, covering western, central and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea. This cruise was fully dedicated to the maintenance and the metrological verification of a biogeochemical observing system based on a fleet of BGC-Argo floats.
Emanuele Organelli, Marie Barbieux, Hervé Claustre, Catherine Schmechtig, Antoine Poteau, Annick Bricaud, Emmanuel Boss, Nathan Briggs, Giorgio Dall'Olmo, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Edouard Leymarie, Antoine Mangin, Grigor Obolensky, Christophe Penkerc'h, Louis Prieur, Collin Roesler, Romain Serra, Julia Uitz, and Xiaogang Xing
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 861–880,Short summary
Autonomous robotic platforms such as Biogeochemical-Argo floats allow observation of the ocean, from the surface to the interior, in a new and systematic way. A fleet of 105 of these platforms have collected several biological, biogeochemical, and optical variables in still unexplored regions. The quality-controlled databases presented here will enable scientists to improve knowledge on the functioning of marine ecosystems and investigate the climatic implications.
Christian Katlein, Stefan Hendricks, and Jeffrey Key
The Cryosphere, 11, 2111–2116,Short summary
In the public debate, increasing sea ice extent in the Antarctic is often highlighted as counter-indicative of global warming. Here we show that the slight increases in Antarctic sea ice extent are not able to counter Arctic losses. Using bipolar satellite observations, we demonstrate that even in the Antarctic polar ocean solar shortwave energy absorption is increasing in accordance with strongly increasing shortwave energy absorption in the Arctic Ocean rather than compensating Arctic losses.
M. Fernández-Méndez, C. Katlein, B. Rabe, M. Nicolaus, I. Peeken, K. Bakker, H. Flores, and A. Boetius
Biogeosciences, 12, 3525–3549,Short summary
Photosynthetic production in the central Arctic Ocean is controlled by light availability below the ice, nitrate and silicate concentrations in the upper ocean, and the role of sub-ice algae that contributed up to 60% to primary production in summer 2012 during the record sea-ice minimum. As sea ice decreases, an overall change in Arctic PP would be foremost related to a change in the role of the ice algal production and nutrient availability.
M. Nicolaus and C. Katlein
The Cryosphere, 7, 763–777,
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Characterizing the evolution of inherent optical properties (IOPs) of sea ice in situ is necessary to improve climate and arctic ecosystem models. Here we present the development of an optical probe, based on the spatially resolved diffuse reflectance method, to measure IOPs of a small volume of sea ice (dm3) in situ and non-destructively. For the first time, in situ vertically resolved profiles of the dominant IOP, the reduced scattering coefficient, were obtained for interior sea ice.
Characterizing the evolution of inherent optical properties (IOPs) of sea ice in situ is...