Articles | Volume 8, issue 3
The Cryosphere, 8, 853–866, 2014

Special issue: Interactions between climate change and the Cryosphere: SVALI,...

The Cryosphere, 8, 853–866, 2014

Research article 12 May 2014

Research article | 12 May 2014

Parameterization of atmosphere–surface exchange of CO2 over sea ice

L. L. Sørensen2,1, B. Jensen1, R. N. Glud6,5,3,2, D. F. McGinnis7,5,3, M. K. Sejr3,2, J. Sievers2,1, D. H. Søgaard5,3, J.-L. Tison8, and S. Rysgaard4,3,2 L. L. Sørensen et al.
  • 1Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
  • 2Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, C.F. Møllers Alle 8, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
  • 3Greenland Climate Research Centre, c/o Greenland Institute of Natural Resources box 570, Nuuk, Greenland
  • 4Centre for Earth Observation Science, CHR Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, University of Manitoba, 499 Wallace Building Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
  • 5University of Southern Denmark, NordCEE, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark
  • 6Scottish Marine Institute, Scottish Association of Marine Science, Oban, Scotland
  • 7Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, GEOMAR, Wischhofstrasse 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany
  • 8The Laboratoire de Glaciologie, the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium

Abstract. We suggest the application of a flux parameterization commonly used over terrestrial areas for calculation of CO2 fluxes over sea ice surfaces. The parameterization is based on resistance analogy. We present a concept for parameterization of the CO2 fluxes over sea ice suggesting to use properties of the atmosphere and sea ice surface that can be measured or calculated on a routine basis. Parameters, which can be used in the conceptual model, are analysed based on data sampled from a seasonal fast-ice area, and the different variables influencing the exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and ice are discussed. We found the flux to be small during the late winter with fluxes in both directions. Not surprisingly we find that the resistance across the surface controls the fluxes and detailed knowledge of the brine volume and carbon chemistry within the brines as well as knowledge of snow cover and carbon chemistry in the ice are essential to estimate the partial pressure of pCO2 and CO2 flux. Further investigations of surface structure and snow cover and driving parameters such as heat flux, radiation, ice temperature and brine processes are required to adequately parameterize the surface resistance.