14 Sep 2022
14 Sep 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal TC.

Greenland and Canadian Arctic ice temperature profiles

Anja Løkkegaard1,2, Kenneth Mankoff1, Christian Zdanowicz3, Gary D. Clow4, Martin P. Lüthi5, Samuel Doyle6, Henrik Thomsen1, David Fisher7, Joel Harper8, Andy Aschwanden9, Bo M. Vinther10, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen10, Harry Zekollari11,12,13, Toby Meierbachtol8, Ian McDowell14, Neil Humphrey15, Anne Solgaard1, Nanna B. Karlsson1, Shfaqat Abbas Khan2, Benjamin Hills16, Robert Law17, Bryn Hubbard6, Poul Christoffersen17, Mylène Jacquemart18,19, Robert S. Fausto1, and William T. Colgan1 Anja Løkkegaard et al.
  • 1Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 2DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
  • 3Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
  • 4Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, USA
  • 5Geographical Institute, University of Zurich, 8052 Zurich, Switzerland
  • 6Centre for Glaciology, Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, UK
  • 7Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada, K1N 6N5
  • 8Department of Geosciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT,59812, USA
  • 9Arctic Region Supercomputing Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK, USA
  • 10Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2100
  • 11Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerand
  • 12Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland
  • 13Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Université libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
  • 14Graduate Program of Hydrologic Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, USA
  • 15Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA
  • 16Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
  • 17Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  • 18Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 19Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland

Abstract. Here, we present a compilation of 85 ice temperature profiles from 79 boreholes from the Greenland Ice Sheet and peripheral ice caps, as well as local ice caps in the Canadian Arctic. Only 25 profiles (32 %) were previously available in open-access data repositories. The remaining 54 profiles (68 %) are being made digitally available here for the first time. These newly available profiles, which are associated with pre-2010 boreholes, have been submitted by community members or digitized from published graphics and/or data tables. All 85 profiles are now made available in both absolute (meters) and normalized (0 to 1 ice thickness) depth scales, and are accompanied by extensive metadata. This metadata includes a transparent description of data provenance. The ice temperature profiles span 70 years, with the earliest profile being from 1950 at Camp VI, West Greenland. To highlight the value of this database in evaluating ice flow simulations, we compare the ice temperature profiles from the Greenland Ice Sheet with an ice flow simulation by the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). We find a cold bias in modeled near-surface ice temperatures within the ablation area, a warm bias in modeled basal ice temperatures at inland cold-bedded sites, and an apparent underestimation of deformational heating in high-strain settings. These biases provide process-level insight on simulated ice temperatures.

Anja Løkkegaard et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on tc-2022-138', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Oct 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Anja Løkkegaard, 13 Dec 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on tc-2022-138', Brice Van Liefferinge, 20 Oct 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Anja Løkkegaard, 13 Dec 2022

Anja Løkkegaard et al.

Data sets

Greenland deep ice temperature database, github Kenneth Mankoff

Greenland deep ice temperature database, Dataverse Kenneth Mankoff, Anja Løkkegaard, Christian Zdanowicz, Gary D. Clow, Martin P. Lüthi, Samuel Doyle, Henrik Thomsen, David Fisher, Joel Harper, Andy Aschwanden, Bo M. Vinther, Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, Harry Zekollari, Toby Meierbachtol, Ian McDowell, Neil Humphrey, Anne Solgaard, Nanna B. Karlsson, Shfaqat Abbas Khan, Benjamin Hills, Robert Law, Bryn Hubbard, Poul Christoffersen, Mylène Jacquemart, Robert S. Fausto, and William T. Colgan

Anja Løkkegaard et al.


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Short summary
This study presents a database compiling 85 ice temperature profiles from the Greenland ice sheet and peripheral ice caps. Ice viscosity and hence ice flow is highly sensitive to ice temperature. To highlight the value of the data base in evaluating ice flow simulations, profiles from the Greenland ice sheet are compared to a modeled temperature field. Re-occurring discrepancies between modeled and observed temperatures provide insight on the difficulties faced when simulating ice temperatures.