Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2021-146
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2021-146

  19 May 2021

19 May 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint was accepted for the journal TC and is expected to appear here in due course.

Giant ice rings in Southern Baikal: multi-satellite data help to study ice cover evolution and eddies under ice

Alexei V. Kouraev1,2, Elena A. Zakharova3,4, Andrey G. Kostianoy5,6, Mikhail N. Shimaraev7, Lev V. Desinov8, Evgeny A. Petrov9, Nicholas M. J. Hall1, Frédérique Rémy1, and Andrey Ya. Suknev10 Alexei V. Kouraev et al.
  • 1LEGOS, Université de Toulouse, CNES, CNRS, IRD, UPS Toulouse, France
  • 2Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
  • 3EOLA, Toulouse, France
  • 4Institute of Water Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • 5P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • 6S.Yu. Witte Moscow University, Moscow, Russia
  • 7Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia
  • 8Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
  • 9Baikal Museum of the Irkutsk Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Listvyanka Village, Irkutsk Region, Russia
  • 10Great Baikal Trail (GBT) Buryatiya, Ulan-Ude, Russia

Abstract. Ice cover on lakes is subject to atmospheric forcing from above and the influence of water dynamics and heat flux from below. One characteristic example of these influences in some large lakes, such as Lake Baikal in Russia, are the giant ice rings and the associated eddies under the ice cover. In April 2020 a giant ice ring appeared in Southern Baikal and a lens-like eddy was detected below the ice. We analysed the temporal evolution of ice cover using satellite images from multiple satellite missions – MODIS on Terra and Aqua, Sentinel-1 SAR, Sentinel 2 MSI, Landsat-8, PlanetScope, satellite photography from International Space Station, and radar altimetry data from Jason-3. Satellite imagery and meteorological data show an unusual temporal evolution of ice colour in April 2020, which was explained by water infiltration into the ice followed by the competing influences of cold air from above and the warm eddy below the ice. Tracking of ice floe displacement also makes it possible to estimate eddy currents and their influence on the upper water layer. Multi-satellite data contribute to a better understanding of the evolution of ice cover in the presence of eddies, role of eddies in horizontal and vertical heat and mass exchange and their impact on the chemistry and biology of the lakes and on human activity.

Alexei V. Kouraev et al.

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on tc-2021-146', Anonymous Referee #1, 14 Jun 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Alexei Kouraev, 27 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on tc-2021-146', Anonymous Referee #2, 22 Jun 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Alexei Kouraev, 27 Jul 2021

Status: closed

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on tc-2021-146', Anonymous Referee #1, 14 Jun 2021
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Alexei Kouraev, 27 Jul 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on tc-2021-146', Anonymous Referee #2, 22 Jun 2021
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Alexei Kouraev, 27 Jul 2021

Alexei V. Kouraev et al.

Alexei V. Kouraev et al.

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Short summary
Giant ice rings are a beautiful and puzzling natural phenomenon. Our data shows that ice rings are generated by lens-like warm eddies below the ice. We use multi-satellite data to analyse lake ice cover in the presence of eddies in April 2020 in Southern Baikal. Unusual changes in ice colour may be explained by the competing influences of atmosphere above and the warm eddy below the ice. Tracking of ice floes also helps to estimate eddy currents and their influence on the upper water layer.