Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2022-174
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2022-174
 
21 Oct 2022
21 Oct 2022
Status: this preprint is currently under review for the journal TC.

In-situ estimation of ice crystal properties at the South Pole using LED calibration data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

Rasha Abbasi17,*, Markus Ackermann63,*, Jenni Adams18,*, Nakul Aggarwal25,*, Juanan Aguilar12,*, Markus Ahlers22,*, Maryon Ahrens53,*, Jean-Marco Alameddine23,*, Antonio Augusto Alves Junior31,*, Najia Moureen Binte Amin43,*, Karen Andeen41,*, Tyler Anderson59,60,*, Gisela Anton26,*, Carlos Argüelles14,*, Yosuke Ashida39,*, Sofia Athanasiadou63,*, Spencer Axani15,*, Xinhua Bai49,*, Aswathi Balagopal V39,*, Moreno Baricevic39,*, Steve Barwick30,*, Vedant Basu39,*, Ryan Bay8,*, James Beatty20,21,*, Karl Heinz Becker62,*, Julia Becker Tjus11,*, Jakob Beise61,*, Chiara Bellenghi27,*, Samuel Benda39,*, Segev BenZvi51,*, David Berley19,*, Elisa Bernardini47,*, Dave Besson34,*, Gary Binder8,9,*, Daniel Bindig62,*, Erik Blaufuss19,*, Summer Blot63,*, Federico Bontempo31,*, Julia Book14,*, Jürgen Borowka1,*, Caterina Boscolo Meneguolo47,*, Sebastian Böser40,*, Olga Botner61,*, Jakob Böttcher1,*, Etienne Bourbeau22,*, Jim Braun39,*, Bennett Brinson6,*, Jannes Brostean-Kaiser63,*, Ryan Burley2,*, Raffaela Busse42,*, Michael Campana48,*, Erin Carnie-Bronca2,*, Chujie Chen6,*, Zheyang Chen54,*, Dmitry Chirkin39,*, Koun Choi55,*, Brian Clark24,*, Lew Classen42,*, Alan Coleman43,*, Gabriel Collin15,*, Amy Connolly20,21,*, Janet Conrad15,*, Paul Coppin13,*, Pablo Correa13,*, Stefan Countryman45,*, Doug Cowen59,60,*, Robert Cross51,*, Christian Dappen1,*, Pranav Dave6,*, Catherine De Clercq13,*, James DeLaunay58,*, Diyaselis Delgado López14,*, Hans Dembinski43,*, Kunal Deoskar53,*, Abhishek Desai39,*, Paolo Desiati39,*, Krijn de Vries13,*, Gwenhael de Wasseige36,*, Tyce DeYoung24,*, Alejandro Diaz15,*, Juan Carlos Díaz-Vélez39,*, Markus Dittmer42,*, Hrvoje Dujmovic31,*, Michael DuVernois39,*, Thomas Ehrhardt40,*, Philipp Eller27,*, Ralph Engel31,32,*, Hannah Erpenbeck1,*, John Evans19,*, Paul Evenson43,*, Kwok Lung Fan19,*, Ali Fazely7,*, Anatoli Fedynitch57,*, Nora Feigl10,*, Sebastian Fiedlschuster26,*, Aaron Fienberg60,*, Chad Finley53,*, Leander Fischer63,*, Derek Fox59,*, Anna Franckowiak11,*, Elizabeth Friedman19,*, Alexander Fritz40,*, Philipp Fürst1,*, Tom Gaisser43,,*, Jay Gallagher38,*, Erik Ganster1,*, Alfonso Garcia14,*, Simone Garrappa63,*, Lisa Gerhardt9,*, Ava Ghadimi58,*, Christian Glaser61,*, Thorsten Glüsenkamp27,*, Theo Glauch26,*, Noah Goehlke32,*, Javier Gonzalez43,*, Sreetama Goswami58,*, Darren Grant24,*, Shannon Gray19,*, Timothée Grégoire60,*, Spencer Griswold51,*, Christoph Günther1,*, Pascal Gutjahr23,*, Christian Haack27,*, Allan Hallgren61,*, Robert Halliday24,*, Lasse Halve1,*, Francis Halzen39,*, Hassane Hamdaoui54,*, Martin Ha Minh27,*, Kael Hanson39,*, John Hardin15,39,*, Alexander Harnisch24,*, Patrick Hatch33,*, Andreas Haungs31,*, Klaus Helbing62,*, Jonas Hellrung1,*, Felix Henningsen27,*, Lars Heuermann1,*, Stephanie Hickford62,*, Colton Hill16,*, Gary Hill2,*, Kara Hoffman19,*, Kotoyo Hoshina39,64,*, Wenjie Hou31,*, Thomas Huber31,*, Klas Hultqvist53,*, Mirco Hünnefeld23,*, Raamis Hussain39,*, Karolin Hymon23,*, Seongjin In55,*, Nadege Iovine12,*, Aya Ishihara16,*, Matti Jansson53,*, George Japaridze5,*, Minjin Jeong55,*, Miaochen Jin14,*, Ben Jones4,*, Donghwa Kang31,*, Woosik Kang55,*, Xinyue Kang48,*, Alexander Kappes42,*, David Kappesser40,*, Leonora Kardum23,*, Timo Karg63,*, Martina Karl27,*, Albrecht Karle39,*, Uli Katz26,*, Matt Kauer39,*, John Kelley39,*, Ali Kheirandish60,*, Ken'ichi Kin16,*, Joanna Kiryluk54,*, Spencer Klein8,9,*, Alina Kochocki24,*, Ramesh Koirala43,*, Hermann Kolanoski10,*, Tomas Kontrimas27,*, Lutz Köpke40,*, Claudio Kopper24,*, Jason Koskinen22,*, Paras Koundal31,*, Michael Kovacevich48,*, Marek Kowalski10,63,*, Tetiana Kozynets22,*, Emmett Krupczak24,*, Emma Kun11,*, Naoko Kurahashi48,*, Neha Lad63,*, Cristina Lagunas Gualda63,*, Michael Larson19,*, Frederik Lauber62,*, Jeffrey Lazar14,39,*, Jiwoong Lee55,*, Kayla Leonard39,*, Agnieszka Leszczyńska43,*, Massimiliano Lincetto11,*, Qinrui Liu39,*, Maria Liubarska25,*, Elisa Lohfink40,*, Christina Love48,*, Cristian Jesus Lozano Mariscal42,*, Lu Lu39,*, Francesco Lucarelli28,*, Andrew Ludwig24,35,*, William Luszczak39,*, Yang Lyu8,9,*, Wing Yan Ma63,*, Jim Madsen39,*, Kendall Mahn24,*, Yuya Makino39,*, Sarah Mancina39,*, Wenceslas Marie Sainte39,*, Ioana Mariş12,*, Szabolcs Marka45,*, Zsuzsa Marka45,*, Matthew Marsee58,*, Ivan Martinez-Soler14,*, Reina Maruyama44,*, Thomas McElroy25,*, Frank McNally37,*, James Vincent Mead22,*, Kevin Meagher39,*, Sarah Mechbal63,*, Andres Medina21,*, Maximilian Meier16,*, Stephan Meighen-Berger27,*, Yarno Merckx13,*, Jessie Micallef24,*, Daniela Mockler12,*, Teresa Montaruli28,*, Roger Moore25,*, Bob Morse39,*, Marjon Moulai39,*, Tista Mukherjee31,*, Richard Naab63,*, Ryo Nagai16,*, Uwe Naumann62,*, Amid Nayerhoda47,*, Jannis Necker63,*, Miriam Neumann42,*, Hans Niederhausen24,*, Mehr Nisa24,*, Sarah Nowicki24,*, Anna Obertacke Pollmann62,*, Marie Oehler31,*, Bob Oeyen29,*, Alex Olivas19,*, Rasmus Orsoe27,*, Jesse Osborn39,*, Erin O'Sullivan61,*, Hershal Pandya43,*, Daria Pankova60,*, Nahee Park33,*, Grant Parker4,*, Ek Narayan Paudel43,*, Larissa Paul41,*, Carlos Pérez de los Heros61,*, Lilly Peters1,*, Josh Peterson39,*, Saskia Philippen1,*, Sarah Pieper62,*, Alex Pizzuto39,*, Matthias Plum49,*, Yuiry Popovych40,*, Alessio Porcelli29,*, Maria Prado Rodriguez39,*, Brandon Pries24,*, Rachel Procter-Murphy19,*, Gerald Przybylski9,*, Christoph Raab12,*, John Rack-Helleis40,*, Mohamed Rameez22,*, Katherine Rawlins3,*, Zoe Rechav39,*, Abdul Rehman43,*, Patrick Reichherzer11,*, Giovanni Renzi12,*, Elisa Resconi27,*, Simeon Reusch63,*, Wolfgang Rhode23,*, Mike Richman48,*, Benedikt Riedel39,*, Ella Roberts2,*, Sally Robertson8,9,*, Steven Rodan55,*, Gerrit Roellinghoff55,*, Martin Rongen40,*, Carsten Rott52,55,*, Tim Ruhe23,*, Li Ruohan27,*, Dirk Ryckbosch29,*, Devyn Rysewyk Cantu24,*, Ibrahim Safa14,39,*, Julian Saffer32,*, Daniel Salazar-Gallegos24,*, Pranav Sampathkumar31,*, Sebastian Sanchez Herrera24,*, Alexander Sandrock23,*, Marcos Santander58,*, Sourav Sarkar25,*, Subir Sarkar46,*, Merlin Schaufel1,*, Harald Schieler31,*, Sebastian Schindler26,*, Berit Schlüter42,*, Torsten Schmidt19,*, Judith Schneider26,*, Frank Schröder31,43,*, Lisa Schumacher27,*, Georg Schwefer1,*, Steve Sclafani48,*, Dave Seckel43,*, Surujhdeo Seunarine50,*, Ankur Sharma61,*, Shefali Shefali32,*, Nobuhiro Shimizu16,*, Manuel Silva39,*, Barbara Skrzypek14,*, Ben Smithers4,*, Robert Snihur39,*, Jan Soedingrekso23,*, Andreas Søgaard22,*, Dennis Soldin32,*, Christian Spannfellner27,*, Glenn Spiczak50,*, Christian Spiering63,*, Michael Stamatikos21,*, Todor Stanev43,*, Robert Stein63,*, Thorsten Stezelberger9,*, Timo Stürwald62,*, Thomas Stuttard22,*, Greg Sullivan19,*, Ignacio Taboada6,*, Samvel Ter-Antonyan7,*, Will Thompson14,*, Jessie Thwaites39,*, Serap Tilav43,*, Kirsten Tollefson24,*, Christoph Tönnis56,*, Simona Toscano12,*, Delia Tosi39,*, Alexander Trettin63,*, Chun Fai Tung6,*, Roxanne Turcotte31,*, Jean Pierre Twagirayezu24,*, Bunheng Ty39,*, Martin Unland Elorrieta42,*, Karriem Upshaw7,*, Nora Valtonen-Mattila61,*, Justin Vandenbroucke39,*, Nick van Eijndhoven13,*, David Vannerom15,*, Jakob van Santen63,*, Javi Vara42,*, Joshua Veitch-Michaelis39,*, Stef Verpoest29,*, Doga Veske45,*, Christian Walck53,*, Winnie Wang39,*, Timothy Blake Watson4,*, Chris Weaver24,*, Philip Weigel15,*, Andreas Weindl31,*, Jan Weldert40,*, Chris Wendt39,*, Johannes Werthebach23,*, Mark Weyrauch31,*, Nathan Whitehorn24,35,*, Christopher Wiebusch1,*, Nathan Willey24,*, Dawn Williams58,*, Martin Wolf39,*, Gerrit Wrede26,*, Johan Wulff11,*, Xianwu Xu7,*, Juan Pablo Yanez25,*, Emre Yildizci39,*, Shigeru Yoshida16,*, Shiqi Yu24,*, Tianlu Yuan39,*, Zelong Zhang54,*, and Pavel Zhelnin14,* Rasha Abbasi et al.
  • 1III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
  • 2Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, Australia
  • 3Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Dr., Anchorage, AK 99508, USA
  • 4Dept. of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 502 Yates St., Science Hall Rm 108, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019, USA
  • 5CTSPS, Clark-Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
  • 6School of Physics and Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA
  • 7Dept. of Physics, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA 70813, USA
  • 8Dept. of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  • 9Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  • 10Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-12489 Berlin, Germany
  • 11Fakultät für Physik & Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany
  • 12Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
  • 13Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium
  • 14Department of Physics and Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  • 15Dept. of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  • 16Dept. of Physics and The International Center for Hadron Astrophysics, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
  • 17Department of Physics, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL 60660, USA
  • 18Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • 19Dept. of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
  • 20Dept. of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • 21Dept. of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  • 22Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
  • 23Dept. of Physics, TU Dortmund University, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany
  • 24Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
  • 25Dept. of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1
  • 26Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany
  • 27Physik-department, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching, Germany
  • 28Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire, Université de Genève, CH-1211 Genève, Switzerland
  • 29Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
  • 30Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
  • 31Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Astroparticle Physics, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 32Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Experimental Particle Physics, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
  • 33Dept. of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6, Canada
  • 34Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA
  • 35Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
  • 36Centre for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology - CP3, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
  • 37Department of Physics, Mercer University, Macon, GA 31207-0001, USA
  • 38Dept. of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
  • 39Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
  • 40Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany
  • 41Department of Physics, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, 53201, USA
  • 42Institut für Kernphysik, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, D-48149 Münster, Germany
  • 43Bartol Research Institute and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
  • 44Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
  • 45Columbia Astrophysics and Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
  • 46Dept. of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
  • 47Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università Degli Studi di Padova, 35122 Padova PD, Italy
  • 48Dept. of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  • 49Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701, USA
  • 50Dept. of Physics, University of Wisconsin, River Falls, WI 54022, USA
  • 51Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA
  • 52Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
  • 53Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden
  • 54Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800, USA
  • 55Dept. of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
  • 56Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
  • 57Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan
  • 58Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA
  • 59Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • 60Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
  • 61Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden
  • 62Dept. of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany
  • 63DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen, Germany
  • 64Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
  • deceased, 20 February 2022
  • *These authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory instruments about 1 km3 of deep, glacial ice at the geographic South Pole using 5160 photomultipliers to detect Cherenkov light emitted by charged relativistic particles. A unexpected light propagation effect observed by the experiment is an anisotropic attenuation, which is aligned with the local flow direction of the ice. Birefringent light propagation has been examined as a possible explanation for this effect. The predictions of a first-principles birefringence model developed for this purpose, in particular curved light trajectories resulting from asymmetric diffusion, provide a qualitatively good match to the main features of the data. This in turn allows us to deduce ice crystal properties. Since the wavelength of the detected light is short compared to the crystal size, these crystal properties do not only include the crystal orientation fabric, but also the average crystal size and shape, as a function of depth. By adding small empirical corrections to this first-principles model, a quantitatively accurate description of the optical properties of the IceCube glacial ice is obtained. In this paper, we present the experimental signature of ice optical anisotropy observed in IceCube LED calibration data, the theory and parametrization of the birefringence effect, the fitting procedures of these parameterizations to experimental data as well as the inferred crystal properties.

Rasha Abbasi et al.

Status: open (until 04 Jan 2023)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse

Rasha Abbasi et al.

Rasha Abbasi et al.

Viewed

Total article views: 740 (including HTML, PDF, and XML)
HTML PDF XML Total BibTeX EndNote
593 141 6 740 10 3
  • HTML: 593
  • PDF: 141
  • XML: 6
  • Total: 740
  • BibTeX: 10
  • EndNote: 3
Views and downloads (calculated since 21 Oct 2022)
Cumulative views and downloads (calculated since 21 Oct 2022)

Viewed (geographical distribution)

Total article views: 699 (including HTML, PDF, and XML) Thereof 699 with geography defined and 0 with unknown origin.
Country # Views %
  • 1
1
 
 
 
 

Discussed

Latest update: 08 Dec 2022
Download
Short summary
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory instruments a cubic kilometre of deep, glacial ice using 5160 sensors to detect light emitted by elementary particles. An unexpected effect observed is an anisotropic light attenuation, aligned with the flow direction of the ice. Curved light trajectories resulting from asymmetric diffusion in the birefringent polycrystalline microstructure of the ice have been identified as the primary cause of this effect. This allows us to deduce ice crystal properties.