14 Feb 2022
14 Feb 2022
Status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal TC.

Mechanism and effects of warming water in ice-covered Ngoring Lake of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

Mengxiao Wang1,2, Lijuan Wen1, Zhaoguo Li1, Matti Leppäranta3, Victor Stepanenko4,5, Yixin Zhao1,2, Ruijia Niu1,2, Liuyiyi Yang1,2, and Georgiy Kirillin6 Mengxiao Wang et al.
  • 1Key Laboratory of Land Surface Process and Climate Change in Cold and Arid Regions, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 730000 Lanzhou, China
  • 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10049 Beijing, China
  • 3Institute of Atmospheric and Earth Sciences, University of Helsinki
  • 4Research Computing Center, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
  • 5Moscow Center for Fundamental and Applied Mathematics, Moscow, Russia
  • 6Department of Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, Germany

Abstract. Ngoring Lake is the largest freshwater lake in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (TP). The lake water temperature was observed to be generally rising during the ice-covered period from November 2015 to April 2016. This phenomenon appeared in the whole water column, with slowing in deep water and accelerating in shallow water before ice melting. The process is different from low-altitude boreal lakes. There are few studies on its mechanism and effects on lake-atmosphere interaction. Based on the observation data of Ngoring Lake Station, ERA5-Land data, MODIS surface temperature data, and precipitation data of Maduo Station of China Meteorological Administration, the characteristics of water temperature rise in the ice-covered Ngoring Lake are analyzed. LAKE2.3 model, which is currently little used for TP lakes, is applied to explore the influence of local climate characteristics and the main physical parameters on the radiation transfer in water body. The study questions are the continuous rise of water temperature in the ice-covered period, and the effects of different water temperature profiles prior to ice breakup on the lake heat storage per unit area and sensible and latent heat release. The results show that LAKE2.3 represents well the temperature evolution and thermal stratification in Ngoring Lake, especially in the ice-covered period. The strong downward short-wave radiation plays a dominant role, low precipitation gives positive feedback, and smaller downward long-wave radiation, lower temperature and larger wind speed give negative feedback. Increase of ice albedo and ice extinction coefficient reduces the heating rate of water temperature before reaching the maximum density temperature, and increases the maximum temperature that can be reached during ice-covered period, while increasing the water extinction coefficient has little influence on water temperature. The lake temperature in Ngoring Lake rising during the ice-covered period, and the temperature at the upper layer of lake body was higher than that at the maximum density temperature before ice breaking. Compared with the characteristics of three typical ice-covered periods which the lake temperature remained fixed in each layer, and the lake temperature was less than or equal to the maximum density temperature, the difference of heat release after ice breaking lasted for 59–97 days. The higher the lake temperature before breakup, the more heat is stored in the lake, and the more sensible heat and latent heat is released when the ice melts completely and the faster is the heat release.

Mengxiao Wang et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on tc-2021-398', Anonymous Referee #1, 22 Feb 2022
    • AC1: 'Reply on RC1', Mengxiao Wang, 11 May 2022
  • RC2: 'Comment on tc-2021-398', Anonymous Referee #2, 22 Mar 2022
    • AC2: 'Reply on RC2', Mengxiao Wang, 11 May 2022

Mengxiao Wang et al.

Mengxiao Wang et al.


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Short summary
The ice-on temperature of Ngoring Lake has been rising, which is different from other boreal lakes. We obtained the results show that strong downward shortwave radiation is the main meteorological factor and Precipitation, wind speed, downward longwave radiation, air temperature, ice albedo and ice extinction coefficient have an impact on the range and rate of lake temperature rise. Once the ice breaks, the lake body releases more energy than other lakes whose water temperatre remain horizontal.