Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2021-210
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2021-210

  22 Jul 2021

22 Jul 2021

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal TC.

Wave dispersion and dissipation in landfast ice: comparison of observations against models

Joey J. Voermans1, Qingxiang Liu2,1, Aleksey Marchenko3, Jean Rabault4,5, Kirill Filchuk6, Ivan Ryzhov6, Petra Heil7, Takuji Waseda8, Takehiko Nose8, Tsubasa Kodaira8, Jingkai Li2, and Alexander V. Babanin1,9 Joey J. Voermans et al.
  • 1Department of Infrastructure Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia
  • 2Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
  • 3The University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway
  • 4Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
  • 5Department of Mathematics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  • 6Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
  • 7Australian Antarctic Division and Australian Antarctic Program Partnership, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia
  • 8Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan
  • 9Laboratory for Regional Oceanography and Numerical Modeling, National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, China

Abstract. Observations of wave dissipation and dispersion in sea ice are a necessity for the development and validation of wave-ice interaction models. As the composition of the ice layer can be extremely complex, most models treat the ice layer as a continuum with effective, rather than independently measurable, properties. While this provides opportunities to fit the model to observations, it also obscures our understanding of the wave-ice interactive processes, particularly, it hinders our ability to identify under which environmental conditions these processes are of significance. Here, we aimed to reduce the number of free variables available by studying wave dissipation in landfast ice. That is, in continuous sea ice, such as landfast ice, the effective properties of the continuum ice layer should revert to the material properties of the ice. We present observations of wave dispersion and dissipation from a field experiment on landfast ice in the Arctic and Antarctic. Independent laboratory measurements were performed on sea ice cores from a neighbouring fjord in the Arctic to estimate the ice viscosity. Results show that the dispersion of waves in landfast ice is well described by theory of a thin elastic plate and such observations could provide an estimate of the elastic modulus of the ice. Observations of wave dissipation in landfast ice are about an order of magnitude larger than in ice floes and broken ice. Comparison of our observations against models suggests that wave dissipation is attributed to the viscous dissipation within the ice layer for short waves only, whereas turbulence generated through the interactions between the ice and waves is the most likely process for the dissipation of wave energy for long periods. The separation between short and long waves in this context is expected to be determined by the ice thickness through its influence on the lengthening of short waves. Further studies are required to measure turbulence underneath the ice independently of observations of wave attenuation to confirm our interpretation of the results.

Joey J. Voermans et al.

Status: final response (author comments only)

Comment types: AC – author | RC – referee | CC – community | EC – editor | CEC – chief editor | : Report abuse
  • RC1: 'Comment on tc-2021-210', Anonymous Referee #1, 01 Aug 2021
  • RC2: 'Comment on tc-2021-210', Anonymous Referee #2, 10 Sep 2021

Joey J. Voermans et al.

Joey J. Voermans et al.

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Short summary
We have shown through field experiments that the amount of wave energy dissipated in landfast ice, sea ice attached to land, is much larger than in broken ice. By comparing our measurements against predictions of contemporary wave-ice interaction models, we determined which models can explain our observations and which cannot. Our results will improve our understanding of how waves and ice interact, and how we can model such interactions to better forecast waves and ice in the polar regions.