Preprints
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2020-301
https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-2020-301

  24 Nov 2020

24 Nov 2020

Review status: a revised version of this preprint is currently under review for the journal TC.

The flexural strength of bonded ice

Andrii Murdza1, Arttu Polojärvi2, Erland M. Schulson1, and Carl E. Renshaw1,3 Andrii Murdza et al.
  • 1Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA
  • 2Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14100, 00076 Aalto, Finland
  • 3Department of Earth Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, USA

Abstract. The flexural strength of ice surfaces bonded by freezing, termed freeze-bond, was studied by performing four-point-bending tests of bonded freshwater S2 columnar-grained ice samples in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by milling the surfaces of two ice pieces, wetting two of the surfaces with water of varying salinity, bringing these surfaces together, and then letting them freeze under a compressive stress of about 4 kPa. The salinity of the water used for wetting the surfaces to generate the bond varied from 0 to 35 ppt. Freezing occurred in air under temperatures varying from −25 to −3 °C over periods that varied from 0.5 h to ~100 hours. Results show that an increase in bond salinity or temperature leads to a decrease in bond strength. The trend for the bond strength as a function of salinity is similar to that presented in Timco and O'Brien (1994) for saline ice. No freezing occurs at −3 °C once the salinity of the water used to generate the bond exceeds ~25 ppt. The strength of the saline ice bonds levels off (i.e., saturates) within 6–12 hours of freezing; bonds formed from fresh water reach strengths that are comparable or higher than that of the parent material in less than 0.5 hours.

Andrii Murdza et al.

 
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Andrii Murdza et al.

Andrii Murdza et al.

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Short summary
The strength of refrozen floes or piles of ice rubble is an important factor in assessing ice-structure interactions as well as the integrity of an ice cover itself. The results of this paper provide unique data on the tensile strength of freeze bonds and are the first measurements to be reported. The provided information can lead to a better understanding of the behavior of refrozen ice floes and better estimates of the strength of an ice rubble pile.